Connections between Music and Chess
by John Greschak
July 22, 1998 - May 24, 2008
Musical Compositions Related to Chess: An Annotated
Musical Terms that are used in Chess
Other Connections between Music and Chess
Musical Compositions Related to Chess
This is a list of pieces of music that are related in some way to the game
of chess. There is no doubt that many of the pieces listed here bear only
a distant (or unknown) relationship to chess. For example, it is likely
that in some cases the only connection is that the word chess was used
in the title of the piece. All known relationships are described in the
The following resources were used to compile the original version of
Absil, Jean. Chess Game, Suite for Piano, op. 96.
Anderson, Jon, and Chris Squire 1971. I've Seen All Good People.
AltaVista (search string: +chess +music +composer).
WorldCat (keywords: chess and music).
The Oxford Companion to Chess by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld
(1996). Specifically, the articles: "Theatre and Chess" and "Music and
International Index to Music Periodicals (keyword: chess).
This is a song that is on the album titled The Yes Album by
the band called Yes that consisted of Jon Anderson (vocals), Chris Squire
(bass and vocals), Tony Kaye (keyboards), Bill Bruford (drums), and Steve
Howe (guitars and vocals). The song has two sections titled Your Move
and All Good People. The lyrics of Your Move are related
to chess. The lyrics of this song may be found at http://yesworld.com/lyrics/the_yes_album.
There is an analysis of this song on pages 78-81 in the book Music
of Yes: Structure and Vision in Progressive Rock (published by
Open Court Publishing Company 1996), by Bill Martin.
Andersson, Benny, Björn Ulvaeus, and Tim Rice 1984. Chess.
Bennett, Ray 1973. None the
Wiser (King); Farewell Number One (Pawn); Man of Honour (Knight); Dead
Ahead (Queen); Bishop.
Bliss, Sir Arthur, and Ninette de Valois 1937. Checkmate.
This work is a 50-minute ballet in one scene that was composed by Sir
Arthur Bliss and choreographed by Ninette de Valois. It was performed at
the Paris World Exhibition. The moves of the pieces influence the form
of the dancing. A biography of Sir Arthur Bliss may be found at http://www.schirmer.com/composers/bliss/bio.html.
Bouliane, Daniel and André Mongeon 2004. E4.
This work is an album by the band called DAK
that consists of Daniel Bouliane (keyboards and programming), André
Mongeon (keyboards and programming) and Luc Grégoire (mixing and
mastering). The album consists of 10 pieces that were inspired by chess:
White (5:36), Black (5:34), Reflexion (4:33), P-K4 (E4) (4:44), Time Is
Up (6:24), Castles (5:18), Inside Your Head (5:02), Sacrifice (4:13), Paranoid
Pawn (4:29) and Checkmate (5:43). Audio samples and lyrics are available
Cage, John 1943. Chess Pieces.
In the John Cage Music Manuscript Collection of The
New York Public Library for the Performing Arts there is a folder of
13 pages of handwritten music (plus one cover page) by John Cage that contains
a work titled Chess Pieces (call number: JPB 95-3 Folder 109). This work
(which might be for piano) appears to be of the form: aabbddeefga agfeeddbbaa.
Note that the form of the second half of the piece is a mirror image of
the first half. Eleven 12-bar sections have been written. Perhaps these
eleven sections are to be used as the eleven sections of the first half
of the piece. Mirror images are also used for smaller structures. For example,
the 12 bars of the first two "a" sections are grouped as 3 bars, followed
by 4 bars, followed by 5 bars (i.e. 12=3+4+5). The 12 bars of the first
"b" section are grouped as 5 bars, followed by 4 bars, followed by 3 bars
Cage, John 1968. Reunion.
This piece may be unfinished. It is unclear whether or not Cage intended
to write eleven more sections for the second half of the piece or if the
eleven sections that have been written are to be played in reverse order
for the second half.
It is not known how this piece is related to chess. There are many open
Why is the structure of the piece based upon mirror images? Do these mirror
images represent the mirror image of the arrangement of white and black
pieces at the beginning of a game?
Why are there 6 different section types (i.e. a, b, d, e, f, and g)? Is
there a one-to-one correspondence between the section types and the 6 chessman
types (e.g. a=pawn, b=rook, etc.)? Or, should the form be written as a2b2d2e2f1g1a1?
This representation of the form suggests that the form may have been derived
from algebraic notation of a particular game.
Why are there 11 sections in each half of the piece?
Why do all sections consist of 12 bars?
How were the pitches selected for this piece?
Addendum: John Cage created a painting titled Chess Pieces that
contains a music score, which is distributed over the 64 squares of a
chessboard. This work was presented in an exhibition at the
Noguchi Museum titled
The Imagery of Chess Revisited
(October 21, 2005 - April 16, 2006);
this was an expanded version of a 1944 exhibition organized by Marcel
Duchamp and Max Ernst at the Julien Levy Gallery. The entry in the
for the exhibition at the Noguchi Museum describes the work as follows:
John Cage. Chess Pieces. 1944. Black and white ink over
gouache on Masonite with recorded music.
The recorded music (of duration 7:48) was performed on piano by
Margaret Leng Tan, who transcribed the score that is embedded in the
painting. Tan stated the following in an interview (available at
All Music Guide: Interview: Margaret Leng Tan):
"There are 22 systems of music, each 12 bars long and self-contained.
So what you have are 22 little 'chess pieces,' . . ."
The recording is available on the album titled
John Cage: The Piano Works 7
(Mode Records 158 CD and DVD). The DVD version includes a performance video
and a documentary about the painting. The cover art for the CD and DVD contains
of a portion of the painting. A review of the recording may be found at
The John Cageblog: Chess Pieces.
See also: the article Composing Chess.
This piece was performed in 1968 at Ryerson Polytechnic in Toronto.
Lowell Cross constructed a chess board equipped with photoreceptors that
served as a gating mechanism to transmit or cut off sound produced by other
musicians and to control lights. John Cage and Marcel Duchamp played a
game of chess. Other participants included Teeny Duchamp, David Tudor,
Gordon Mumma, and David Behrman. The book Marcel Duchamp and John Cage
by Shigeko Kubota (1970) contains photographs and a recording of this performance.
Chopinet 1990. Ana.
This piece is a ballet (choreographed by Chopinet) that is based on
Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass. It has a specially created
game of 73 moves as its text. Source: The article "Theatre and Chess" from
Oxford Companion to Chess by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld (1996).
Clément, Murielle Lucie 1996.
This work is a short opera for 2 sopranos and a chessboard. The libretto
is based upon a chess game between Ljubomir Ljubojevic and Garry Kasparov
in 1987 at the Swift Blitz tournament in Brussels. Ljubojevic defeated
Kasparov in this game and tied Kasparov for first place in the tournament.
An audio version of the opera along with the moves of the game may be found
Cohen, Marcia 1971. Chess Set: for Percussion and Electronic Tape.
Cruft, Adrian 1986. Chess Pieces (for Trumpet and Piano). London:
This 10-minute work is composed of 5 short pieces: Knights (1-1/4 min.),
Rooks (Castles) (1-3/4 min.), Pawns (1-1/2 min.), Bishops (2-1/2 min.)
and Queens & Kings (3 min.). The journal British Music contains
and article edited by Jack Denford in which Cruft talks about his music
(see volume 11, 1989 and volume 12, 1990).
Eberwein 1819. Das Schachturnier (Le tournoi aux échecs).
This work is an opera. It may be incomplete. Source: The article "Music
and Chess" from The Oxford Companion to Chess by David Hooper and
Kenneth Whyld (1996).
Haas, Michael [Engelke, pseud.] and Emmerich Haimer 1999. Das Schachbrett
des Trommelbuben Zacharias.
This is an album (Black Rose Productions BRP 112) consisting of 8
songs by the band called
It is based on a novella by Michael Haas, which is about two Russian chess
Hanson, Sten 1979-85. John Carter Songbook.
The John Carter Songbook is a collection of examples of Martian music
by the Swedish composer Sten Hanson. The fourth piece in the set is titled
"The Chessmen of Mars". This is a musical model of a Martian chess game
called jetan which is played on a board that contains 100 squares and 20
chessmen per side. A sound is associated with each man and a pitch is assigned
to each row of squares. Panning is used to distribute the squares of the
chessboard. A translation (by William Brunson) of Sten Hanson's description
of the John Carter Songbook from Phono Suecia nr 30 (1988) was once
available at http://www.mic.stim.se/engelsk/2/johncarter.html.
A biography of Sten Hanson may be found at Swedish
Music Information Center.
Harvey, Richard, Brian Gulland, Graeme Taylor, David Oberlé and
Philip Nestor 1974. Red Queen to Gryphon Three.
This work is an album by the band called Gryphon that consisted of
Richard Harvey (keyboards, recorders, krumhorn), Brian
Gulland (bassoon, krumhorn), Graeme Taylor (guitars), David Oberlé
(drums, percussion, timpani) and Philip Nestor (bass guitar) with Ernest
Hart (organ) and Pete Redding (acoustic bass). The album consists of 4
instrumental pieces: Opening Move (8:15), Second Spasm (9:42), Lament (10:45)
and Checkmate (9:50). Information on the band Gryphon may be found at http://www.gaudela.net/gryphon/frames.html.
Johansson, Mats 1997. Holistic Medicine.
This is a 15-minute song on the album titled MIND Volume 1 (Svenska
Unikum SUCD 197) by the band called Isildurs
Bane consisting of Klas Assarsson (percussion), Jonas Christophs (guitar),
Fredrik Emilson (bass), Joachim Gustafsson (violin), Mats Johansson (keyboards),
and Kjell Severinsson (drums and percussion). Throughout the song, the
moves of a chess game are recited, beginning with "Pawn to king four",
"Pawn to queen's bishop four" and "Knight to queen's bishop three". A recording
was once available as the RealAudio file http://www.isildursbane.se/sound/medicine.ram
Official Isildurs Bane Website.
Johnson, Timothy Ernest 2004. Antyphony: Paul Morphy vs. Duke of Brunswick
and Count Isouard.
This 4-minute work (BMI #7285210) is for antiphonal chamber orchestra.
It is based on the game cited in the title. The composer writes (letter
to the author, 23 April 2005): "The dramatic unfolding of the piece comes
directly from the chess game." Note: This game was also used by Noel-Johnson
for Sinbad the Sailor on Ice.
Johnson, Timothy Ernest 2004-08. Antyphony: Gary Kasparov vs. Deep
This is an 11-minute work for 15 players.
It is based on the second game of the 1996 match between world champion Gary
Kasparov and the IBM computer Deep Blue. On the previous day, Deep Blue
had won game 1, beating Kasparov for the first time.
Kasparov won game 2 and the match.
Kapr, Jan 1972. Chess Sonata for Two Pianos, or piano and magnetic tape
with the part of 2nd piano.
This 18-minute piece is intended for two pianos or one piano accompanied
by a tape recording of the 2nd piano part. A biography and list of works
of the Czech composer Jan Kapr may be found at http://www.musica.cz/comp/kapr.htm.
Lacerda, Osvaldo 1971. Cromos: para Piano. Sao Paulo: Irmaos Vitale.
This work consists of four booklets of short pieces for piano. The
third booklet contains a piece titled Jogando xadrez (Playing the
game of chess). A copy of the score and a recording are available at the
University Library (score: temporary control number: ACK8572) (recording:
call number: LAMC TP.B8 .L1317 K1.2).
Lewis, John. The Chess Game.
This piece is based upon J. S. Bach's Goldberg variations. It is performed
on harpsichord or piano, alone or together, in original form or in jazz
interpretations. The work has been recorded by John Lewis (piano) and Mirjana
Lewis (harpsichord) (see: The Chess Game Phillips 832015 and The
Chess Game Pt.2 Phillips 832588).
MacLean, Dougie 1994. Marching Mystery. Dunkeld Records.
The song "Marching Mystery" on this album of songs by the Scottish
songwriter Dougie MacLean was inspired by a set of ancient chess pieces
found on the West coast of the Isle of Lewis. This is mentioned in an article
about MacLean (by Lahri Bond) that appeared in the October/November 1995
issue (No. 60) of the magazine Dirty Linen which may be found at
Madetoja, Leevi 1910. Shakkipeli (Chess Game).
This piece is a suite of four movements: Juhlamarssi (Festive March),
Kansankarkelo (Popular Fête), Miekkatanssi (Sword Dance) and Menuetto
(Minuet). It was composed for the play called Shakkipeli by the
Finnish poet Eino Leino. A biography of the Finnish composer Leevi Madetoja
may be found at Finnish
Music Information Centre. A biography of Eino Leino may be found at
Martinu, Bohuslav. Échecs au roi.
Source: The article "Music and Chess" from The Oxford Companion
to Chess by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld (1996).
Noel-Johnson, Reginald Charles 1953. Sinbad the Sailor on Ice.
This work is a ballet on ice composed by Reginald Charles Noel-Johnson.
The ballet includes a living chess performance of a famous friendly game
between Paul Morphy and the Duke of Brunswick. Source: The article "Theatre
and Chess" from The Oxford Companion to Chess by David Hooper and
Kenneth Whyld (1996).
Nyman, Michael 1986. The
Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat.
This work is a chamber opera for soprano, tenor and baritone, with
two violins, viola, two cellos, harp and piano. It is based on a case study
given in the book of the same name by Oliver Sacks in which a neurologist
(Dr. S) diagnoses a patient (Dr. P). Dr. P is a professional singer with
a condition that causes him to misidentify objects that he sees. For example,
while visiting Dr. S, he mistakes his own wife for a hatstand. During a
house call, Dr. S and Dr. P play a game of chess; Dr. P plays mentally
and wins easily. A recording of this work is available (CBS MK44669; see
the track titled Pawn to King 4).
1993. Jeux Imaginaires.
Jeux Imaginaires is a musical piece that is based upon the 22nd game
of the 1992 World Championship match between Anatoly Karpov and Garry Kasparov.
The rhythm of the drums in the middle section was derived from the pondering
times of the first 19 moves of the game. The composer writes: "I like to
think of musical components (soundobjects, phrases, structures etc.) as
pieces (of chess) with different charge and strength that may be placed
in a variety of relationships, and where the object of composing is that
of finding solid constructions of relations throughout the whole musical
time." A translation (by William Brunson) of Åke Parmerud's description
of Jeux Imaginaires from Phono Suecia nr 72 (1994) was once available
A biography of Åke Parmerud may be found at Swedish
Music Information Center.
Rabaud, Henri 1927. Le Joueur D'échecs (The Chess Player) for
Piano. Paris: Max Eschig.
Reif, Paul 1965. Philidor’s defense: a musical chess game.
A recording of this 13-minute piece for chamber orchestra is available
on the album titled Two Contemporary Composers (Serenus Recorded
Editions, 1967 - SRE 1018).
Rieti, Vittorio 1945. Chess Serenade: suite for two pianos. New
York: Associated Music.
Rorem, Ned 1973. Day Music: for Violin and Piano. New York: Boosey
This work consists of 8 pieces: Wedges and Doubles, Pearls, Extreme
Leisure (or the Gallows Revisited), Bats, Billet Doux, Another Ground,
Yellows, and A Game of Chess Four Centuries Ago. A biography of Ned Rorem
may be found at http://www.nedrorem.com/.
Sabouroff, P. P. Love Symphony.
The scherzo movement of this piece is labeled Simultaneous games
of chess. The piece was performed at Monte Carlo in 1925. Source:
Shorter, Wayne 1960. The Chess Players.
Harley, B. 1931. “Music and Chess.” Music and Letters 12(3):
This song was recorded in 1960 on the album titled The Big Beat
by the band "Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers" that consisted of Lee Morgan
(trumpet), Wayne Shorter (tenor saxophone), Bobby Timmons (piano), Jymie
Merritt (bass), and Art Blakey (drums). A biography of Wayne Shorter may
be found at http://www.imnworld.com/IMN/artist_view/49.
Simon, Ladislav 1971. Sachova Dama (Chess Queen), Blues for jazz orchestra.
Slick, Grace 1966. White Rabbit.
This song was recorded live in1966 for the album titled Conspicuous
Only In Its Absence (released 1968: Columbia CS-9624) by the band called
"Great Society" that consisted of Grace Slick (vocals), Darby Slick (guitar),
David Minor (guitar), Jerry Slick (drums), and Peter Vandergelder (bass).
Later, it was recorded for the album titled Surrealistic Pillow (released
1967: RCA LPM/LSP-3766) by the band called "The Jefferson Airplane" that
consisted of Marty Balin (rhythm guitar), Jack Casady (bass), Paul Kantner
(rhythm guitar), Jorma Kaukonen (lead guitar), Grace Slick (vocals), and
Spencer Dryden (drums). The third verse contains the lines: "When the men
on the chessboard / Get up and tell you where to go". The fourth verse
contains the lines: "And the White Knight is talking backwards / And the
Red Queen's off with her head".
Solare, Juan María
1986. Ajedrez I y II (Chess I and II) for voice and piano.
Solare, Juan María
1992. Ben Oni for Flute, Clarinet and Violoncello.
The name of this 4-1/2 minute work matches that of the chess book Ben-Oni
oder die Vertheidigungen die Gambitzüge im Schach, by Aaron Reinganum
which was published in 1825 (see also: Benoni Defence).
Solare, Juan María
1996. Diez Estudios Escénicos (Ten scenic Etudes) for two actors,
one actress, diverse objects and instrumental sextet: violin, doublebass,
horn, bass clarinet, vibraphone and piano.
This 20-minute work consists of 10 scenes. In the 5th scene (1-1/4
min.) which is titled Chessgame, the two actors pretend to play
chess without the use of props. They are accompanied by the violin and
doublebass, the latter of which strains to play in unison with the violin.
Solare, Juan María
1999. Zugzwang (fifteen authentic miniatures about the strategy of chess)
for quartet: violin (or flute), alto sax (or clarinet), double bass (or
violoncello) and piano (or synthesizer).
This work consists of 15 extremely short pieces that have an average
duration of 12.6 seconds. The structure of each piece mirrors that of a
particular concept or position in chess (e.g. Isolated pawn, Time-trouble,
and Fianchetto). The work is dedicated to the Grandmaster Lothar
Schmid who served as chief arbiter for several World Championship matches
(including Spassky-Fischer 1972, Karpov-Korchnoi 1978 and Kasparov-Karpov
Stravinsky, Igor 1913. Le Sacre du Printemps (The Rite of Spring).
The composer, Juan María Solare is also the author of several
articles on various relationships between music and chess which have been
published in the magazines Doce Notas, Letra Internacional,
and Biblioteca de México.
In the book, Nicholas Roerich: Messenger of Beauty (published
by Inner Trad 1994), Jacqueline Decter recounts a story of how Roerich
offered Stravinsky two possible scenarios for a new ballet: "A Game of
Chess" or "The Great Sacrifice". Stravinsky chose "The Great Sacrifice"
for what was to become Le Sacre du Printemps. This chess-related
quote from this book was once available at http://www.stagebill.com/dance/features/featuresarchive/sacre.html.
Stuermer, Wolfgang von, Dietrich
Eichmann, Christoph Grund,
Uwe Kremp and Reimar Volker 1987/1989. Game and Earnest.
This is a 60-minute piece for two players performing at a chessboard
controller for samplers and synthesizers (16 modules) with additional live
musicians on piano, turntables/electronics, guitars and saxophones. The
piece was performed on July 2, 1987 by the performance-duo consisting of
Wolfgang von Stuermer and Dietrich Eichmann (under the name FIQ (Fraktion
Illegaler Quomponisten)) with guests Christoph Grund, Uwe Kremp and Reimar
Volker at the festival Belluard/Bollwerk in Fribourg, Switzerland. A revised
version of the piece was produced by the SDR (South German Radio), in 1989.
An audio excerpt, review and history of this work may be found at http://www.dietrich-eichmann.de/Seiten/Game.htm
(German) and http://www.dietrich-eichmann.de/Englisch/Commentary/Game_e.htm.
Vermeulen, Robert Jan
1997. Gary Kasparov - Black and White.
This is an 8-minute piece on the album titled Portraits
(Challenge Records CHR 70048)
by the band called "Amsterdam Jazz Quintet" that consisted of
Toon Roos (saxophones),
Bert Joris (trumpet and flugelhorn), Robert Jan Vermeulen (piano and organ),
Paul Berner (bass) and
Joost van Schaik (drums). This work is a musical portrait of Garry
Waschka II, Rodney
1985. Euwe Suite.
This 15-minute work consists of five movements (Euwe-Colle 1926, Euwe-Alekhine
1935, Alekhine-Euwe 1937, Euwe-Najdorf 1954 and Moonen-Euwe 1981), each
of which is based on a particular game of chess played by Max Euwe; a Dutch
mathematician and World Chess Champion (1935-7). Pitches were assigned
to chessboard squares. The melodies for a given movement were determined
by the moves of the corresponding game. For one movement, timbre was determined
by the type of chess piece being moved. A recording of this work, which
was realized using a Synclavier II, is available on the album titled Cartography
1968. Cello and Tuba Machine.
For this work, which has also been referred to as Machine for Cello
and Tuba, the notes played by the tuba were determined by the moves
of a knight on a musical chessboard. It was performed by John White (tuba)
and Cornelius Cardew (cello) at Queen Elizabeth Hall on May 17, 1971. A
review of this performance may be found at http://www.meirion-bowen.com/mbartconcerts71.htm.
More recently, it was performed by Robin Hayward (tuba) and Ringela Riemke
(cello) at Kryptonale 8
on October 18, 2002. Program notes (German) written by John White may be
found at http://www.kryptonale.de/tubamachine.htm.
Wright, Richard, and David Gilmour 1968. Pawn to King 5.
? 1607. Ballet des Échecs.
The Oxford Companion to Chess is a comprehensive encyclopedia of
chess. It contains articles on history, terminology, chess players, and
the relationship between chess and other subjects such as music, art, theatre,
literature and philosophy. Many of the terms listed in this book are also
musical terms. For example, in chess, a person who creates puzzles and
problems to be solved is called a composer, and two different sequences
of moves that lead from one given position to another are said to be related
by transposition. Some other terms that are used in chess and music are:
play, piece, notation, score, tempo, theme, variation, development, minimal
composition, round, major and minor, position, second, retrograde, mirror,
attack, anticipation, phase and echo.
Musical Terms that are used in Chess
Hooper, David, and Kenneth Whyld 1996. The Oxford Companion to Chess.
Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
Randel, Don Michael, ed. 1986. The New Harvard Dictionary of Music.
Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University
Other Connections between Music and Chess
Boettcher, Wendy S., Sabrina S. Hahn, and Gordon L. Shaw 1994. “Mathematics
and Music: A Search for Insight into Higher Brain Function.” Leonardo
Music Journal 4: 53-58.
Chicco, Adriano 1987. “Uno ‘Scacchiero’ Musicale.” Scacchi e scienze
applicate 5: 6-7.
This article discusses the chekker which may have been a 15th-century
musical chessboard. Each of the squares occupied by chessmen on one side
had a virtue attributed to it while those of the opposite side had negative
qualities. It is not known how this instrument generated sound, but it
was a keyboard of some kind that may have been similar to a harpsichord.
Source: The article "Chekker" from The Oxford Companion to Chess
by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld (1996).
Franklin, Paul B. and Lowell Cross 2005.
“Composing Chess.” In List, Larry (Ed.) 2005. The Imagery of Chess
Revisited. New York: Braziller.
This article discusses the visual artworks Chess Pieces by John
Cage and Chess Serenade by Vittorio Rieti that were included an
exhibition at the Noguchi Museum titled
The Imagery of Chess Revisited (October 21, 2005 - April 16,
Pavy, Claude 2002. “Jeu d'échecs et musique.” In Minutes du colloque
jeu d'échecs, arts et sciences humaines, La Libre Case.
July 22, 1998: Completed the first version of this page.
July 4, 1999: Added several works by Juan María Solare.
January 11, 2000: Added the entry for the song I've Seen All Good
People by Jon Anderson and Chris Squire as a result of information
provided by Eric Saathoff.
June 27, 2000: Added the entry for the song The Chess Players
by Wayne Shorter based on information provided by Mike C. Added the entry
for the album Red Queen to Gryphon Three by the band Gryphon (i.e.
Richard Harvey et al.) based on information provided by Bill Martin. Also,
the entry for I've Seen All Good People was expanded to mention
Bill Martin's analysis of this song.
April 14, 2001: Added the entry for Shakkipeli by Leevi Madetoja
based on information provided by Markus Lång. (Note: Markus Lång
has compiled a comprehensive list of musical compositions inspired by Lewis
Carroll at http://www.helsinki.fi/~mlang/lewis/carroll-music.html.)
May 26, 2001: Added the entry for Le Joueur D'échecs by
Henri Rabaud based on information provided by Theodore van Houten.
April 26, 2003: Added the entry for Holistic Medicine by Mats
Johansson. Added the entry for various songs written by Ray Bennett on
the album Out of Our Hands. Both entries are based on information
provided by Robert Eksteen. Added the entry for White Rabbit by
December 17, 2004: Added the entry for The Man Who Mistook His Wife
for a Hat by Michael Nyman based on information provided by Robert
Eksteen. Added the entry for Euwe Suite by Rodney Waschka II based
on information provided by Philip Krumm. Added the entry for Cello and
Tuba Machine by John White based on information provided by John Kent.
Added information to the entry for Pawn to King 5 by Richard Wright
and David Gilmour.
February 12, 2005: Added the entry for pieces written by Daniel Bouliane
and André Mongeon on the album E4 by the band DAK.
July 5, 2005: Added the entry for Antyphony: Paul Morphy vs. Duke of
Brunswick and Count Isouard by Timothy Ernest Johnson. Added the entry
for the article Jeu d'échecs et musique by Claude Pavy.
May 25, 2006: Added the entry for the album Das Schachbrett des
Trommelbuben Zacharias written by Michael Haas and Emmerich Haimer
(of the band Angizia) based on information provided by Robert Eksteen.
Added an addendum to the entry for Chess Pieces by John Cage
based on information provided by Zac Bond.
June 7, 2006: Added the entry for the piece
Gary Kasparov - Black and White by Robert Jan Vermeulen based on
information provided by Robert Eksteen.
May 24, 2008: Added the entry for Antyphony: Gary Kasparov vs. Deep
Blue by Timothy Ernest Johnson. Added the entry for the article
Composing Chess by Paul B. Franklin and Lowell Cross.
Work by John Greschak